Cognitive, Cognitive Behavioral and Reality theories

THEORY: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY
a. Key Concepts
Dysfunctional behaviors are attributes of cognitive and behavioral developments. Cognitive behavioral theory (CBT) aims at solving problems pertaining to dysfunctional behaviors, emotions, as well as cognition, by use of present systematic procedures.
b. Key Theorists
i. Albert Ellis
ii. Aaron Beck
iii. Albert Bandura
c. Appropriate Populations for the Theory
The theory is applicable to the population with psychological problems, those with problems pertaining to dysfunctional behaviors, emotions, as well as cognition, such as stress, depression, PTSD etc.
d. Inappropriate Populations for the Theory.
Since the theory is aimed at eliminating dysfunctional behaviors that have been adopted on the course of life, it is limited to such.
e. Therapist`s Role
The role of the therapists is to give directions for the clients to follow
f. Client`s Role
The role of the client is to collaborate with the therapists by following the suggested directions.
g. Theory Strengths
i. The strength of the theory is its ability to acknowledge that dysfunctional behaviors are shaped by cognitive and behavioral traits. Thus, in addressing the anomalies, it capitalizes on both elements.
h. Theory Limitations
It has been criticized on the basis on assuming that the clients are not rational because the decision-making process is dominated by the therapists` directives, and this could be constraining to its effectiveness
i. Key Terms
Personality and behaviors is an attribute of two elements Ego and superego personality.
Superego personality: it is a derivative of internalized ideals that people acquire from the social environment.
Ego personality: it is a derivative of self perceptions. This personality dictates the action of people according the inner perceptions of the real world as triggered by real life experiences
j. Is this Theory Research-based? Evidence-based?
The theory framework is evidence-based. This is because the therapy may consist of the approaches of testing the assumptions that clients make and which enables identification of thoughts and behaviors that are distorted, unhelpful and unrealistic.
k. Special Training Requirements (if applicable)
There are various special training requirements. The pivotal aspects that inform the effectiveness of the theory are the underlying skills such as the communication skills. These may require special training.
THEORY: COGNITIVE THEORY
l. Key Concepts
Dysfunctional behaviors are attributes of cognitive factors. The theory is aimed at guiding the physicians to help the patients to overcome difficulties through identification and alteration of the dysfunctional thoughts, emotions and behaviors. The rationale is that modifying the beliefs of the clients, the dysfunctional attributes would also be altered.
m. Key Theorists
Aaron Beck
n. Appropriate Populations for the Theory
The theory is applicable to the population with psychological problems, those with problems pertaining to dysfunctional behaviors, emotions, as well as cognition, such as stress, depression, PTSD etc.
o. Inappropriate Populations for the Theory (Explain why.)
Since the theory is aimed at eliminating dysfunctional behaviors that have been adopted on the course of life, it is limited to such.
p. Therapist`s Role
The role of the therapists is to give directions for the clients to follow
q. Client`s Role
The role of the client is to collaborate with the therapist by following the suggested direction, as well as helping the therapist to discern the underlying behaviors.
r. Theory Strengths
The theory informs a therapy that is short-term hence, it is cost effective to the clients.
s. Theory Limitations
The theory is not applicable to every person. Secondly, it may not treat all the conditions. This is because it only focuses on a narrow course field of the disorders, which are cognitive correlates. Thirdly, it is manipulative to the clients.
t. Key Terms.
Collaborative empiricism: an approach that guides the collaboration between the client and the therapist
Guided discovery: It is a term that legitimizes the tactic employed by the therapist to enable the client understands the cause of the dysfunctional behaviors and attitudes by self-reflection. Socratic questioning: These are questions that the therapist directs at the client to stimulate self awareness.
u. Is this Theory Research-based? Evidence-based? Justify your rationale.
The theory framework is evidence-based. This is because the therapy may consist of the approaches of testing the assumptions that clients make and which enables identification of thoughts that are distorted, unhelpful and unrealistic.
v. Special Training Requirements
The pivotal aspects that inform the effectiveness of the theory are the underlying skills such as the communication skills. These may require special training.
THEORY: REALITY THEORY
w. Key Concepts
The theory is informed by the notion that human beings depend on various psychological needs for the wellness and survival. These are love, power, freedom, fun and pleasure. Compromising one of the needs results in compromised psychological health.
x. Key Theorists
William Glasser
y. Appropriate Populations for the Theory
The appropriate population for the problem is that suffering from psychological problems as a result of deprivation of the elements of psychological needs and wellness.
z. Inappropriate Populations for the Theory
The theory is not applicable to the population with mental disorders that are not as a result of deprived basic psychological wellness. This is because the theory is limited on the related problems.
aa. Therapist`s Role
The role of the therapists is to ensure that the client is accorded favorable conditions to foster recovery.
bb. Client`s Role
Here, the role of the client is passive.
cc. Theory Strengths
The theory is comprehensive about the possible causes of dysfunctional behaviors that are often common in practice.
dd. Theory Limitations
The theory is concerned about the present situation, instead of the past situation. It overlooks the history of recurrence of dysfunctional behavior, which could reveal a lot and help address the conditions effectively. It emphasizes the need of freedom for the clients, which is a distortion of reality.
ee. Key Terms
The three R: These are stated realism, responsibility, and right-and-wrong. The theory acknowledges the 3R as imperative and as what sets apart the theory from the rest, which simply treat psychological distortions as mental disorders.
ff. Is this Theory Research-based?
It is not evidence-based. This is because is often concerned about tackling the present situation of individuals. In this regard, it cannot be evidenced-based because an aspect of evidence must infer from the past.
gg. Special Training Requirements
The application of the theory does not require special training.

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