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This paper addresses the issue of disparities and strategies to achieve social justice focusing on a particular population. For the purpose of this paper, African Americans population has been selected and this paper will identify key structural inequalities experienced by this population in terms of following key points. Data profile on the group chosen including basic social structural data on poverty, income, housing, education, health, mental health and social justice features, etc. Comparison and contrasts of data on the population compared with other groups.
United States has long been renowned for their achievements in the development of medical science, the concentration of resources in the health system, the perfection of medical equipment and sterile clean hospitals. All this is well known to our readers through rental Hollywood movies and television series. However, they remained behind the scenes, rarely mentioned that the dominance of private medicine in clotting federal social insurance programs in connection with the social revenge bourgeoisie after the collapse of the USSR makes problematic even getting first aid for the millions of ordinary Americans (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011).
Past are often sick, because the poor, and cannot be pulled out of poverty because they do not have adequate health for work. After falling into a vicious circle of poverty, many poor people work occasionally fall in the number of homeless and are content with modest medical and hospital services provided to them in the notorious flophouse. This concerns both the white and black population. However, the country of “equal opportunities” white is much more equal than black, whose fate is unenviable especially on the threshold of the 21[st] century, as in the distribution of wealth and access to medical care.
Further confirmation of this truth has become recently the publication of the study “The State of Dreams in 2004: The continuing inequality between black and white.” His name was used words from a famous speech fighter for civil rights provision of Martin Luther King Jr. “I Have a Dream.” This dream was associated with the achievement of their equality in the United States by all citizens, regardless of color. In the aforementioned work carried out under the auspices of the Association in support of equitable economy, there is every reason to conclude that, in the last third of the twentieth century. Almost nothing has changed in the social and economic situation of blacks in the United States (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011).
Many African Americans are poor and because they were pushed to the margins of capitalist wage labor market, more often larger than others in the ranks of the reserve army of labor. They were last to be hired and first to be fired from their jobs. Currently, one in nine black tries in vain to find a job and returned home with the daily labor exchange nothing for pains. Beginning in 1972, the unemployment rate among African-Americans only twice dropped below 10 per cent mark – in 1972 and 1998-2001. In the past year, the unemployment rate among blacks was more than two times higher than among whites, and was respectively 10.8% versus 5.2% (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011).
In fact, the indicator “superfluous men” among the black population is even higher, since American statistics include only those who are “actively looking for work.” Desperate to find a job, many African Americans into being permanently unemployed, sink to the “economic bottom”, but their fate is of little concern to those in power. But when there is massive unemployment in the white community, it is called a depression.” Depriving many blacks the right to work, as a rule, leads to the deprivation of all sources of income. However, this is almost no care in the U.S. corridors of power. At least as long as hundreds of thousands of African-Americans, do not take to the streets with the requirements of work.
We called our demonstration a campaign for jobs and income because we believe that the economic question is the most critical issue for black people, in general, to the poor that they face.” In the same issue the black community in the United States is facing and on the threshold of the 21[st] century. In 2001, this ratio did not change: White received $ 1, black – 57 cents. To obtain a meager gain in two cents African Americans took three decades. It follows that if the income gap between whites and blacks in the U.S. will continue to decline such a snail`s pace, then African-Americans need to 581 a year to achieve equality in income distribution.
Not better, but worse in the United States in the distribution of income between white and black families. The gap between them is not only not narrowed since 1968, but also, on the contrary, increased. In 1968, a typical black family in the United States settled for 60% of the income of white families in 2002 – 58percentage. Economists estimate that because of the wage gap between black workers with secondary education in the course of working life from 25 to 60 years receive 300 thousand dollars less than the white with the same education will. Thus, the first and the costs for housing, food, education and health will be much lower. That is why black households in the U.S. have much less wealth than whites (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011).
In this case, the “wealth” in the U.S. is calculated by a simple formula – “all that is your property, minus whatever you have to.” In 2001, the typical white household was estimated at U.S. $ 468 200, black – 75 700 dollars when it should be noted that the gap also decreases and increases. In 1989, the average white family in the U.S. was 5.5 times richer than black, in 2001 – 6 times. In this – one of the reasons why the U.S. black population lives in constant debt. American sociologist D.Konli not accidentally called his latest book, “Being black, live red”, referring to the long-standing tradition in the United States devote “all you need” in the debt book with red pencil, red ink, red ink, etc. .
Since then the technology selection debt in the U.S. in red has gone from a simple pencil to the latest computer sixth generation, but are the “debt trap” remains the same. Especially for the black population in America, which has always been forced to more white and other color to live on credit? It is this fact, due to racial inequality in society supposedly equal opportunities, makes most African-Americans to save on health in order to make ends meet in the struggle for survival. For many of them is not even purchase basic health insurance.
The arrival of the first African American to the White House was held by minorities. For many, Barack Obama took a step further in redefining American society as a true “melting pot”. However, those same minorities who celebrated his victory could become a source of pressure as soon Obama occupies the Oval Office: as observers, many are pinning their hopes on change in favor of integration, rapid and substantial-are promoted from the same level of government. However, the gap between white and African American majority has only widened in the last decade, as revealed by official statistics and surveys. For example, while 9.8% of the total population of the United States lives below the poverty line, according to 2007 data, among black Americans that proportion rises to 24.5%. The average income of a family of black rose last year for the first time since 1999, according to the U.S. Census Bureau (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011).
This could be read as good news, if it were not that the revenues are still well below those of a white family: U.S. $ 33.916 per year for black minorities and U.S. $ 54.920 for white households. In education, the picture is not encouraging. Much of the discussion about education reform in the country over the past two decades has been about racial inequality. Beyond the program “No Child Left Behind” (No Child Left Behind), promised by George W. Bush to address the shortcomings of the school system, the fact is that in statistics measuring performance, most schools with non-white students are always at the bottom of the rankings.
According to a report by the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), levels of segregation black students or Hispanic origin have grown markedly since the 80s, although minority groups now account for almost half of the students (41 %) and blacks, in particular, constitute 17% of the school population. The percentage of white students in public schools fell, while increased the dropout level institutions with African American majority, at around 40% (Simning, Wijngaarden & Conwell 2011). This in turn generates a bigger problem: the minority schools become unattractive destinations for the most skilled teachers. The racial issue is combined with poverty, and advocates say programs that not only change is necessary to combat discrimination, but to establish policies that put minority schools in a par with those of predominantly white students.
As a result, there is nothing surprising in the fact that black Americans live almost 6 years less than whites. In 2000, life expectancy for whites in the U.S. was 77.4 years for blacks – 71.7 years (93%). Thirty years ago, the gap was slightly larger: the above figures were in 1970, respectively, 71.6 years and 64.1 years (90%). To bridge this gap, African-Americans need 71 years, i.e. almost as much as the life expectancy of black inhabitants of America today. It follows from this that survive to this period – until 2071 – very few black, who have long been pariahs of American society, unequal distribution of two – and wealth, and health.
Black Americans are unequal by their birthday. Although the infant mortality rate in the U.S. declined in absolute terms compared to 1970, Black babies are now 2.5 times more likely to die before one year of age than white infants. In 1970, the gap was much lower and was almost doubled. According to official statistics, in 1970 the infant mortality rate stood at 32.6 Black Death per 1,000 live births was 83% higher than whites – 17.8 deaths per 1000 live births. In 2001, the figures were 14 death cases for blacks and 5.7 for whites death cases of infants per 1,000 live births, i.e. have been higher by 146%.
Describing the denial of the right to life of many black babies in the U.S., in 1967, the infant mortality (widely accepted as an accurate index of general health) among blacks is almost two times higher than white … Reduced life – not just a consequence of neglect. It is a structural part of the economic system in the United States. Because over the years, the economic system in the United States if undergone any changes, only for the worse, and the results of its operation in the neoliberal variant did not lead to anything good in the past and will not in the future.
Simning, A., Van Wijngaarden, E., & Conwell, Y. (2011). Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in United States African-American public housing residents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(10), 983 – 992. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617430
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