Roberto E. Gimenez
Health Promotion Proposal I
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an infection that left untreated,
leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS leads to
premature death. In the United States, an estimated 1.1 million people
are infected with HIV. Testing helps the infected people to begin
treatment and taking care not to infect others (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2010). However, a research conducted by the
Centers for Disease Control in 2010 indicated that over 50% of
America’s total population has never had a HIV test. HIV and AIDS have
been identified in varied studies as the leading health indicator in
Florida. Prevention measures have also faced various hurdles in
different parts of Florida.
The same research indicated that every 9.5 minutes, a new person gets
infected with HIV. These figures demonstrate a crisis that needs to be
mitigated without much delay (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 2010). HIV prevention and detecting at early stages can save
a lot. First, prevention would ensure less people get infected. Early
detection would lead to early treatment. Early treatment in turn would
ensure there are fewer cases of AIDS which is more costly to treat and
results in many deaths. Both measures save on cost. Programs such as
ECHPP initiated in Miami-Dade County targeted creating awareness on the
importance of testing and prevention measures.
The proposed health program is based on the above mentioned strategies
of HIV prevention and HIV testing and early treatment. The target area
is South Florida, particularly the hard-hit Miami-Dade County. The
program will emphasize, on encouraging residents of Miami-Dade to be
tested regularly (Sanchez et al, 2008). The people who will test
positive should begin receiving treatment immediately to prevent the HIV
developing to AIDS. The plight of the vulnerable groups of people is
addressed in the program and suggestions given for each. Other issues
such as HIV-related stigma are also considered in the program (Villar et
al, 2011). The program incorporates will focus on an individual’s
effort towards HIV prevention with the support of health care centers.
There are groups with higher HIV prevalence than others. For example,
there was found to be a higher rate of AIDS in the Northeast and South
states which also have large populations than in other parts of the
United States. This was according to data released by the National HIV
Surveillance System in 2008. A study done in 2006 indicated HIV and AIDS
as the leading cause of death among Blacks in Miami-Dade County.
One vulnerable group is the Latino immigrant workers. About half of
Miami-Dade residents are foreign born, an indicator of massive
migration. Migration has accelerated spreading of the virus across
borders. These movements decrease their accessibility to health services
since the host country may not be keen to address the needs of
immigrants (Brown, 2002). Immigrants face racial or ethnic intolerance
in host countries. This may facilitate their hesitation to declare the
HIV status for fear of stigmatization. The instant separation from
family and social circle may result in psychological stress and
consequent high risk behavior. The case of illegal immigrants is
complicated because they avoid contact with any government agency
including health centers. The proposed program intends to help them
overcome stigmatization. They will be linked to social groups formed by
people with similar challenges where they can share freely, as well as
overcome their fears and gain self-confidence. Information about the
care centers available in Miami-Dade where they can get medical
attention without fear of non-citizen discrimination will be availed.
The Black community is also a vulnerable group particularly in Florida.
Over 51% of the HIV/AIDS reported cases in Miami-Dade, in 2005, were
Blacks. Though the Blacks only constitute 20% of the Miami-Dade’s
population, they account for 60% of HIV/AIDS related deaths. Miami-Dade
County Health Department released a report addressing the Black
community issues (Spencer et al, 2006). The high HIV/AIDS prevalence was
attributed to the fact that most Blacks could not afford to pay for
routine check up’s. The Black community needs to be aware of their
high prevalence. This awareness creation will be part of the proposed
health program as well as ways to mitigate this high risk situation.
Homosexuals have a high rate of HIV infection. Women need regular
testing during pregnancy to prevent mother-child HIV transmission. Women
in some parts of the continent are made particularly vulnerable due to
suppression by culture and beliefs. For instance, Hispanic women in the
Caribbean countries should not discuss sexual matters. This affects the
strategies that have been used before to elevate awareness of testing
and preventing AIDS. To overcome this challenge, the strategies to be
used in this program will be more interactive. Education will be
customized in light of the cultural setting of Miami-Dade County.
Efforts have been made to mitigate the high risk factors such as the
ones above mentioned. The New Opportunities for Women en espaniol was a
project that was guided by Miller School of Medicine. It targeted
overcoming the cultural barriers of sexual silence among Hispanic women.
The issues discussed with the participants included HIV and sexual risk,
sexual protection and negotiation with sex partners (Sanchez et al,
2008). The project also pointed out the high rate of HIV/AIDS
stigmatization among the Hispanic community.
A Cultural Competency Program was conducted in 2003. The program faculty
was Florida International University of Nursing and Barry University
School of Nursing. It was a training program, for nurses to help them
understand the prevailing culture and beliefs as they administer health
assistance (Sanchez et al, 2008). HIV prevention messages that are
effective in other parts of America were found ineffective in creating
the same awareness in the Caribbean countries. HIV intervention programs
would need to consider the linguistic and cultural aspect of this area.
The proposed program targets HIV awareness and prevention among
immigrants, Blacks, gays and women in South Florida. Borrowing from what
has been done previously, the program will employ education as the
strategy to reach out to each group (Villar et al, 2011). Within a year,
the program aims at having new data for each group relating to their
level of HIV awareness, testing and prevention. A sample will be taken,
from the various target groups to be used for the survey. Actions will
be derived from the report of the intended intensive survey. The program
will emulate the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Plan (ECHPP) used
by Florida’s Health Department. It is consistent with the National
HIV/AIDS strategy and incorporates women, African American, migrant
workers and transgendered people and drug users.
Brown, E., (2002). Recruitment Feasibility and HIV Prevention
Intervention Acceptability Among Rural North Florida Blacks. Journal of
Community Health Nursing, 19(3).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Vital Signs. [Data
file]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns
Sanchez, J., Suarez, G., Serna, C., & Rosa, M.D. (2008). The Latino
Migrant Worker HIV
Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community
health worker training program. Fam Community Health, 35(2).
Spencer, L., S., Trepka, M., Liberti, T., Cohen, L., & Romero, J.
(2006). HIV/AIDS patients who move to urban Florida Counties following a
diagnosis of HIV: Predictors and implications for HIV prevention.
Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine,
Villar, O.M.L., Vamos, S., Jones, D.L., Lopez, E., & Weiss, S.M. (2011).
A cultural perspective on sexual health: HIV positive and negative
monolingual Hispanic women in South Florida. Hispanic Health Care
Scoring Rubric: Health Promotion Program Proposal Paper, Part 1
[150 points] – Due Unit 6
Excellent Above Average Satisfactory Below Average Unsatisfactory Total
Describes the health problem clearly and provides supporting relevant
references. The description contains specific problems areas that will
be addressed by the intervention and measured by the evaluation plan.
Includes a timeline and communication methods for implementation.
Problem is described with supporting relevant references focus could be
more clear and more details are needed. The description contains
specific problem areas which need additional descriptions, more clarity
or more supporting references. Includes a timeline and communication
methods for implementation Problem is identified but inadequately
described. Supporting references are weak, lack evidence.
Includes a timeline and communication methods for implementation
Attempted to identify and describe the problem but it was short and
vague, not able to be measured. Insufficient supporting references. No
timeline or discussion of communication methods Problem is not
identified, or is poorly presented. No supporting references.
No timeline or discussion of communication methods
25 15 12 9 0 25
Describes vulnerable population and setting clearly and accurately.
Vulnerable population and setting are described more detail needed.
Population and setting are superficially described or with limited
descriptions. Either population or setting are not described. Population
and setting are not described.
Your population is too broad more specificity is needed
25 15 12 9 0 15
Clearly and thoroughly identifies factors that put this population at
risk using objective evidence Identifies risk factors using objective
evidence but more detail is needed. Risk factors discussed. Evidence is
weak. Attempted to identify risk factors. Evidence is lacking Does
not identify risk factors.
30 20 15 12 0 30
Provides a literature review related to interventions that address the
problem that is comprehensive and derived from nursing scholarly
journals and other social science literature. Discussion demonstrates
critical analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the studies. The
literature review is comprehensive research studies are published in
nursing scholarly journals and other social science literature.
Discussion of the research findings needs more focus and clarity in
content. Review is present but not comprehensive, nursing studies
poorly represented, little evidence of critical analysis. Review is not
comprehensive, little evidence of critical analysis and nursing
No literature review is included
You do not provide a strong review of literature
25 15 12 9 0 15
Selects and presents an appropriate health promotion/disease prevention
theoretical or conceptual model that best serves as the guiding
framework for the proposal includes comprehensive supportive scholarly
evidence. Appropriately selects and presents theoretical / conceptual
model guides the proposal description of model needs more clarity in
explanations of application includes supportive scholarly evidence.
Selection of the theoretical / conceptual model is appropriate but
explanation and supportive scholarly evidence is not comprehensive.
Theoretical model is selected but has questionable applicability. No
theoretical model is presented . This is not clearly explicated
25 15 12 9 0 15
Text, title page, and references page are consistent with APA format.
Ideas and information from other sources are cited correctly.
Rules of grammar, word usage, and punctuation are followed.
Assignment is spellchecked and proofread.
Overall style is demonstrates excellent consistency with that expected
of formal, professional work. There are rare errors most of the text,
title page, and references page is consistent with APA format.
Ideas and information from other sources are cited correctly with rare
Rules of grammar, word usage, and punctuation are followed with rare
Assignment has rare spelling and/or proofreading errors.
Overall style is generally consistent with that expected of formal,
professional work with rare exceptions. There are some errors, but much
of the text, title page, and references page is consistent with the APA
Ideas and information from other sources are cited correctly with few
Rules of grammar, word usage, and punctuation are followed with few
Assignment has few spelling and/or proofreading errors.
Overall style is adequate for formal, professional work some areas need
style improvement. There are frequent repeated errors in consistency of
the text, title page, and references page with APA format.
There are numerous errors in which ideas and information from other
sources are not cited correctly.
There are numerous errors in rules of grammar, word usage, and
There are numerous spelling and/or proofreading errors.
Overall style is inadequate for formal, professional work many areas
needs need style improvement. APA format is not utilized
No obvious attempt made to cite ideas and information from other
There are consistent and repeated errors in rules of grammar, word
usage, and punctuation.
There are consistent and repeated spelling and/or proofreading errors.
Overall style is not at all consistent with formal, professional work
20 15 10 5 0 15 of 20 Please see notes concerning APA
Total Points 115 of 150
Percent Accomplished 77
HEALTH PROMOTION PROPOSAL I PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 2
HEALTH PROMOTION PROPOSAL I 1
Health Promotion Proposal I
Roberto E. Gimenez
Roberto E. Gimenez