Nutrition Nutrition

Nutritional Content Analysis: Day 1
Total Kcal
1000cal=1Kcal
Total cal Day 1= 1077 (80+84+47+5+110+30+46+180_70+120+20+150+10)4+120+1)
Total kcal for day 1=1077/1000= 1.077 Kcal
Fat = 27g (3+2+2.5+5+1.5+1+14)
CHO = 80.02g (70+10+0.02)
Fiber = 28g (4+2+3+1+3+6+5+5+2+2)
Protein = 85g (15+1+2+17+1+1+8+22+24+3+4+2)
Nutritional Content Analysis: Day 2
Total Kcal
Total cal Day 2= 1011 (80+84+156+5+110+30+46+100+50+50+70+280)
Total kcal for day 2=1011/1000= 1.011 Kcal
Fat = 20.7g (1.2+2+2.5+1+1+13)
CHO = 15.14g (10+0.12+0.02+5)
Fiber = 43.4g (4+10.4+3+1+3+5+5+12)
Protein = 90.3g (15+1+6.3+17+1+1+5+8+22+14)
Macronutrient Distribution Table
Total consumption per day was divided by three meals
Protein (g)
Fat (g)
Cho (g)
Total Per Day
Per Meal
Total Per Day
Per Meal
Total Per Day
Per Meal
Day 1
85
28.3
27
9
80.2
15.4
Day 2
90.3
30.1
20.7
6.9
26.7
5.1
Original Harris Benedict Formula
BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) for women = BMR = 655.0955 + (9.5634 x weight in kg) + (1.8496 x height in cm) – (4.6756 x age in years)
1 inch = 2.54 cm and 1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs.
Calculation
Weight = 54.5 kg, Height = 165.1 cm, Age = 40
655.1 + (9.6*54.5) + (1.85*165.1) – (4.68*40) = 655.1 + 523.2 + 305.435 – 187.2
Solution = BMR is 1296.535
Harris Benedict method for Men: step 2
Activity Factor Estimate: 1.55
BMR * 1.725 = 1296.535 * 1.55
Solution = Daily Calorie needs 2009.63 which is equivalent to the estimated TEE
REE Formula
Females: 655 + 9.56 (weight in kilograms) + 1.85 (height in centimeters) – 4.68 (age)
655 + 9.56*54.5 + 1.85 + 165.1 – 4.68*40 = 655 +521.02 + 772.668 – 187.2
Solution for (Resting Energy Expenditure) REE = 1761.67 calories
Discussion
Compared to the recommended guidelines in terms of the total Kcal, my diet seems to be giving me calories that are lower than what I need considering the extent to which I work out. My calorie consumption for day 1 was 1.077 Kcal while on day two it was 1.077 Kcal. Going by the calculations above, my recommended daily BMR stands at 1.296 Kcal, the TEE stands at 2.009 Kcal and the REE stands at 1.761 Kcal.
According to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), people are supposed to take 10-35% of protein, 20-35% of fat and 45-65% carbohydrate (Ross & McMahon, 2013). 1 gram of protein is equivalent to four calories and going by my intake percentages
Protein = 85grams for day 1 and 90.3 grams for day 2 which means that my total calories from proteins on day 1 was 85*4/1077 *100 = 19.1%. For day 2 the total calorie consumption from proteins was 90.3*4/1011*100 = 35.7%.
Fat contains 9 calories in every gram. On day 1, I consumed 27 grams of fat while on day 2 I consumed 20.7 grams of fat. This translates to 27*9/1077*100 = 22.56% for day 1 and 20.7*9/1011*100 = 18.42%. Going by these calculations, it means that the supply of calories from carbohydrates for day 1 was 100 – 19.1+22.6 = 58.3% while that for day 2 was 100 – 35.7+18.2 = 46.1%. Cholesterol on the other hand does not have any calories. Below is a tabular representation of the same
Protein
Fat
Carbohydrates
Recommended Intake (%)
10-35%
20-35%
45-65%
Diet intake Day 1 (%)
19.1
22.56
58.3
Diet Intake day 2 (%)
37.5
18.52
46.1
The results show that my macronutrient distribution for the two days was within the recommended ranges except for day two when proteins were slightly higher and fat was slightly lower. The recommended fiber intake stands at 14 grams for every 1 thousand calories according to Ross & McMahon (2013). This means that I should have taken slightly higher than 14 grams going by my calorie consumptions. I consumed 28 grams of fiber on day 1 and 43.4 grams on day two. I would therefore say my fiber intake was high though fiber does not necessarily interfere with bioavailability or negatively affect other aspects of digestion according to Ross & McMahon (2013). For fatty acids, I took flax seeds on day 1 and chia seeds on day two. On day 1 the calories I received from flax seeds was 47/1077*100 = 4.3%. On day two the calories I received from chia seeds was 156/1011*100 = 15.4%. The recommended amount is 3-6% per day according to Ross & McMahon (2013) and this shows that my intake on day 1 was fine but that on day two was quite high. Ross & McMahon (2013) state that the recommended cholesterol intake is 300 mg daily and my intake on day 1 was 80.2 g while that on day 2 was 26.7g and 1g = 1000 mg. This shows my cholesterol intake was very high for the two days. My sodium intake was optimal because some of the meals had salt and foods such as chicken are known to be rich in sodium.
The sources of most of the cholesterol in my diet are mainly animal products such as yoghurt and grilled chicken. There are other sources such as protein powder which contains some animal products, almond milk, extra virgin olive oil and escarole and white bean soup. The highest cholesterol supplier was however grilled chicken which had 70 grams of cholesterol. Fat sources included flax seeds, protein powder, almond milk, grilled chicken, extra virgin olive oil, chia seeds, turkey slices, whole wheat flax & fiber and escarole and white bean soup. The highest suppliers were extra virgin olive oil which had 14 grams and escarole & white bean soup which had 13 grams. Plant fat therefore stood out as a preferred source of fat. Proteins came from most of the foods I consumed but the highest supplier of the same was grilled chicken which had 24 grams. High protein was also supplied by apple, protein powder and yoghurt. The presented data shows that there is a balance between animal proteins and plant proteins for both days.
The DRI guidelines call for a steady intake is various vitamins and nutrients including calcium, vitamins, B, C, D, E and K and the intake of nutrients such as copper, iodine, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc among others. From the assessment of my diet, all these were present in the foods that I ate. The fruits and vegetables provided the vitamins while minerals came from varied foods. For instance, white beans are rich in phosphorous, salt is rich in iodine and sodium, chicken is rich in iron, wheat germ has manganese, wheat and flax have magnesium, flax seeds are also rich in copper while yoghurt and wheat germ are rich in zinc (Ross & McMahon, 2013). Calcium from milk and a product such as yoghurt has a high bioavailability level and that means I had high absorption levels. Calcium absorption is also not affected by fat intake and this is important because I have a diet with considerable fat levels. High levels of protein lead to higher absorption levels of copper and my diet was high in both plant and animal protein. Fiber does not affect its absorption but high ascorbic acid levels may hamper its absorption (Ross & McMahon, 2013).
Vitamins were consumed through strawberries, broccoli rabe, salad spring and other foods. A fruit such as strawberry contains vitamins A, D, E and K (Ross & McMahon, 2013). These are foods that require fat for absorption and the fact that they were taken alongside foods with fat and extra virgin olive oil increased their bioavailability.
The highest variation from the recommended DRI was on my protein intake which stood at 107.1% (37.5/35*100). The excess is not over 20%. The other variation was on fat intake levels in day 2 which stood at 92.5% (18.52/20*100) which was also not less than 80%. Though the variations are not very different from what is proposed, the higher levels of protein are occasioned by the efforts I made to take a high protein diet. I am not concerned about these differences because I made a conscious decision to take a high protein diet in preparation for a race in June 2013. The ramification in this case would involve maintaining the same levels of protein intake or increasing them slightly.
Nutrient Recommendations
1. An increase in blueberry intake. Rationale: it would increase calories and fiber plus very little protein. This will improve my calorie intake considering my activities.
2. An increase in the amount of chia seeds taken. Rationale: This would increase my calories, fiber and protein intake plus very little fat.
3. An increase in the intake of apple by replacing small with large. Rationale: This will increase my calorie intake, protein and fiber.
The recommended increases would raise my overall calorie levels but a component such as cholesterol which is high will be maintained because I am very active. An increase in fiber intake does not lead to any negative effects.
References
Ross, D. & McMahon, K. (2013). Nutrition: My Plate Update. Fourth Edition. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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