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Assignment #1: Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease
Cholesterol is a waxy substance soft white tasteless, odorless present in the blood and all body parts. And our bodies need cholesterol to function normally and is used in the construction of cells, it exists in a wall or cell membrane of the brain, nerves, muscles, skin, liver, intestines and heart. The body uses cholesterol to produce several hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids bile acids that help digest fat (Deedwania, Singh & Davidson, 2009). The body needs a small amount of cholesterol in the body to cover this requirement. The large increase in the amount of cholesterol in the blood lead to atherosclerosis atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis, which is a deposition of cholesterol and fat in the arteries, including the coronary arteries of the heart coronary arteries and thus contribute to the narrow and clogged causing heart disease (Anderson, Voss & Hørder, 1990).
Recent studies have reported that reducing cholesterol level when not suffering from heart disease reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (angina or angina angina pectoris and heart stroke or myocardial infarction myocardial infarction) and death because of it. This also applies to suffer from high cholesterol level and has a normal cholesterol level (Deedwania, Singh & Davidson, 2009). Excess cholesterol deposits on the artery walls including the heart (coronary arteries), forming fatty plaques that thicken over the years (atherosclerosis). The blood flow becomes increasingly difficult and the reduction in the size of vessels promotes clot formation (thrombosis). When the blood is no longer myocardial infarction (Anderson, Voss & Hørder, 1990).
There are several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, some are controllable and some not. Among non controllable are: male sex, older age, family history and post-menopause. Among those that can be controlled are: smoking, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes and of course the blood cholesterol levels (Anderson, Voss & Hørder, 1990).
The blood cholesterol levels accepted vary by state health:
> In a person without CHD or with less than two risk factors, the LDL level should be less than 160 mg / dl and when greater must be controlled with drugs.
> Without CHD and with two or more risk factors, the LDL level should be less than 130 mg / dl.
> Without CHD and with two or more risk factors, should be less than 130 mg / dl.
> With coronary disease, should be less than 100 mg / dl.
+ Merck Manual of Medical Information Home (Deedwania, Singh & Davidson, 2009).
Today, you can reduce your risk of heart attack by following some tips for healthy living: opt for a balanced diet, stop smoking, control your blood pressure, do a bit of sport … The game is worth it since Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death (Baron & Baron, 2007). The heart brings vital energy throughout the body. But this body knows many enemies cholesterol, smoking, physical inactivity, junk … With nearly 180,000 deaths per year, cardiovascular disease is the 1st cause of death in the world. Prevention treatments, learn how to maintain a healthy heart. Proper nutrition for cardiovascular disease increases the effect of drugs , increases their efficiency, increase survival. In addition, a healthy diet helps to prevent heart disease in the presence of risk factors and genetic susceptibility (Deedwania, Singh & Davidson, 2009). Proper nutrition will help you normalize blood cholesterol with heart disease, delay the development of atherosclerosis, significantly reduce the likelihood of heart attacks and strokes. Your blood vessels longer remain “clean” and healthy. This will prolong your youth and life. If necessary, individually for you doctor prescribe medication to lower cholesterol.
> Coffee or tea kind
> 50g of bread or 4 crackers, toasted bread or 50g unsweetened cereals.
> 1 Plain yogurt or cottage cheese 20%
> A fruit (150g)
> 1 cup of semi-skimmed milk
> 15 g butter (1 small individual plate)
> 30 g jam
> 1 small glass of fruit juice with no added sugar
> 120g or 160g fish meat, poultry, or 2 slices of ham poultry (No meat of lamb, duck, salmon) and no sauce!
+ Cook on the grill, pressure cooker or steam + spices, mustard, tomato coulis.
+ The fish bouillon, oven, papillote with lemon.
> Vegetables: 100g weighed cooked (starchy) green vegetables
+ Hot: steamed …> 10g ghee
+ Cold: …. > 1 tbsp of low-fat dressing
> A yogurt or cottage cheese 20%
> A fruit (150g)
> 50 G of bread
> 1 cup shredded carrots + a tablespoon of oil
> 1 plate of spaghetti
> 1 hamburger + 1 nut margarine
> 1 natural yoghurt sweetened
> Bread, depending on your appetite
> Water 16 h
> 1 coffee or tea by limiting the amount of sugar
> 1 compote
> Vegetable soup or green vegetables
> 2 eggs or 1 fillet or chicken or fish 2 tr. ham poultry
> Yogurt or cottage cheese or 2 chipmunks (nature and no sugar!)
> 1 Fruit (150g)
> 40 g of bread
Dried apricots soaked (100 g).
Assignment #2: Diabetes
Diabetes is a group of endocrine disease, developing as a result of absolute or relative (violation of interaction with target cells) lack the hormone insulin, resulting in developing hyperglycemia a persistent increase in the content of glucose in the blood. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all kinds of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein , mineral and water and salt. In addition to the person exposed to the disease and some animals, such as cats (Drouin, Blickle, Charbonnel, Eschwege, Guillausseau, Plouin & Daninos, et al., 2009). The prevalence of diabetes in populations of people, on average, is 1-8,6%, the incidence in children and adolescents about 0.1-0.3%. Given the number of undiagnosed forms may in some countries as high as 6%. As of 2002 in the world of diabetes hurt about 120 million people. In the last National Health Survey, 5.6% of the population, had been diagnosed with diabetes, the figure reached 16% in those over 65 years, in the survey of 1993 declared diabetes affection only 4.1% (Drouin, et al., 2009). The solution to food consumption by patients with hyperthyroidism goitrogens is cooked in this way because of its negative effect is inactivated. Foods containing iodine should be avoided by people with hypothyroidism, such as seafood, multivitamins, dairy products, processed foods and metabolic.
Coffee with skim milk better (200cc, if you do not like milk coffee), 50-60 grams of bread with a drizzle of extra virgin olive oil (butter can be but only 10 grams).
A bowl of salad dressed with a little oil (200 grams), 150 grams steak grilled with boiled potatoes (150 grams) and a piece of fruit.
A noodle soup (150 cc), boiled hake (200 grams).
A latte (small, 100 cc) and a slice of bread with jam without sugar.
Anderson, P., Voss, A., & Hørder, M. (1990). Distribution of serum total cholesterol in a population with varying risks of cardiovascular disease. Ugeskrift For Laeger, 152(8), 523 – 526.
Baron, A. A., & Baron, S. B. (2007). High Levels of HDL Cholesterol Do Not Predict Protection From Cardiovascular Disease in Women. PrevCardiol.
Committee, P. P., & Classification, A. (2010). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2010. Diabetes Care, 33(Supplement_1), S11 – S61. Retrieved from
Deedwania, P., Singh, V., & Davidson, M. H. (2009). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease risk: an analysis of statin clinical trials. The American Journal of Cardiology, 104(10 Suppl), 3E – 9E. Retrieved from
Drouin, P., Blickle, J. F., Charbonnel, B., Eschwege, E., Guillausseau, P. J., Plouin, P. F., Daninos, J. M., et al. (2009). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. (D. Porte, R. S. Sherwin, & A. Baron, Eds.)Diabetes Care, 32(Supplement_1), S62 – S67. Retrieved from
Tariq, S. H. (2002). Dietary prescription in diabetes mellitus. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 18(4), 827 – 833.