Propaganda Student`s name

Institutional affiliation:
Abstract
Propaganda has been classified as a form of communication that aims at influencing the attitude of individuals in a community towards some position by only explaining one side view of an argument. Propaganda has been formed by messages that are not valid. There are various ways that can be used to spread propaganda. However, it has bee analyzed by researchers and found that propaganda is immensely spread through media and social interaction. The media use diverse methods, inclusive of television, radio, posters, government reports, movies, news reports, leaflets and books among others. The government in various nations has implemented measures that govern the spread of information, so as to reduce the rate at which propaganda is spread in the nation. Propaganda has been found to develop diversity among individuals from different communities, and this has led to violence among the communities. Therefore, there should be essential measures that should be undertaken to reduce the spread of propaganda, especially through the media.
Propaganda
Propaganda has been classified as a form of communication that aims at influencing a community`s attitude towards some position by explaining one side view of an argument. In order to find the results intended, propaganda is dispersed and repeated through various forms of media that are available. Media and social interaction has been found to be the principal means through which propaganda is spread in a nation. Therefore, the government members in the various states are trying to ensure that guidelines are put in place, to ensure that individuals are not influenced to cause chaos in the nation. This can be achieved if the media transmission messages are checked for analysis before they are transmitted.
The media have diverse ways that can be used as a form of communication. These methods include books, television, radio, posters, government reports, movies, news reports, and leaflets among others. Television and radio propaganda are mostly spread through news broadcast, talk show segments, advertisements and long-running advertorials. The messages passed by the media, often contain a way through which more information can be obtained.
A transmission pattern that is considerably strategic is followed so that the target aimed at, can be indoctrinated. Propaganda contains information that can be based on a leaflet dropped from an advertisement or a plane. This information is spread through the various means and media makes the transmission more effective (Akresh & Walque, 2009).
Thesis statement: Propaganda is a form of communication that can influence individuals from diverse communities to do what they have not planned and is not helpful in the development of the nation, and it has been analyzed and found that propaganda is immensely spread through media and social interaction.
Propaganda is usually reinforced to the target group by a strategy that is aimed at initiating the individual from the information gained from the recipient to the information seeker. The seeker of the information will then analyze the information and have it relayed to the opinion leader, through indoctrination (Anselin, 1988).
Social psychological research has implemented the use of diverse techniques that have been used over the years, to develop propaganda. These techniques are mostly found under fallacies that are logical because it has been found that, individuals promoting propaganda use information and arguments that are not valid, though the information can be convincing relative to the situation being experienced.
There are diverse strategies that are used to transfer information from one place to the other. However, these strategies can be referred as propaganda strategies if the information being relayed contains messages that are not valid and are considered as propaganda. Therefore, messages that are transmitted through a medium should be valid for the transmission media to be reliable. (Elhorst, 2010).
The media through television and radio, as well as other forms of data transmission, have been found to incite individuals from diverse communities to participate and go into attacks because of what is aired. This is based on the fact that the media do not relay the right information to the society, which raises alarms.
Researchers have found that several instances of individuals experiencing genocides have been increasing in various nations as a result of information that is relayed to the society, which is not the will of the community. These messages that are spread among individuals has been propaganda that has been found to have no basis (Akresh & Walque, 2009).
Radio transmission has been termed as the most significant instrument that can be used by mass media, to influence individuals anywhere. This is based on the fact that, the use of radio does not necessarily need the availability of electricity, therefore, can be accessed by individual anywhere in the world.
Religious and ethnic hatred has been found to be effected by broadcast messages, which are delivered by elites targeting the groups that are minor in the community. Elimination of the smaller group in a given society can lead to mass murder in the nation. Therefore, more harm can be experienced in the nation when there is broadcast of wrong information. (Collier & Hoe-er, 1998)
A case that has been examined as an illustration by researchers is a condition where individuals in a community plan to attack individuals from the minor group in the society. In this case, if there is uncertainty about the government`s decision and policy on the punishment for such an action then the media informs the society about the laws. Information about the laws of the land that can lead to violence is passed through the media, thus giving the evidence that the media has formed a crucial part in inciting individuals of a community to engage in violent actions.
Local violence that is based on propaganda has been classified into individual and collective violence. Individual violence explains a situation where the benefits attained from the violence do not necessarily depend on whether the other individuals are violent, therefore, the individual engages the self in the whole process (Andre & Platteau, 1998).
On the other hand, collective violence explains a situation where complimentary that is strategic is present. Violence that is collective can lead to the whole community being faced with the challenge of having to develop differences with other communities. This means that the whole nation will be influenced by this action.
Propaganda is primarily based on the information that is relayed to the media by the government. A situation where propaganda from the government has influenced the operations in the nation has been found to lead to differences and violence with diversity in the degree relative to coordination and organization (Akresh & Walque, 2009).
Therefore, the government leaders should ensure that there are measures on the level of accessibility of broadcasts and information by the media. This can help in ensuring that the media houses are careful on the information type being processed and delivered to the diverse communities in the nation.
Despite the fact that individuals in the society can have access to the right information in the nation, the media can ensure that the information delivered later on is different from what the individuals in the society expect. This case can be termed as a form of propaganda being used to incite the society (Besley & Persson, 2011).
The individuals in various communities can use the information relayed to them to cause harm and chaos. Cases that have been analyzed where propaganda has differentiated the individuals in the various communities has led to permanent hatred, where different communities cannot come together and work together as one.
Difference among individuals caused by propaganda has been found to create tension in the nation and lead to tribalism. This means that the various communities will only work to ensure that their community grows and develops, without necessarily understanding the problems in the other communities (Haavelmo, 1954).
The nation that has been affected by the difference among communities due to propaganda is faced with decreased rate in the growth and development processes. This is based on the fact individuals from diverse communities with different skills and knowledge will not share the same information to the other individuals from another community, which could be helpful in the processes undertaken in the nation.
The radio and television stations that are owned by the government are highly trusted by various communities, to deliver information that is reliable. Having this in consideration, the government should ensure that there are measures governing the information and the level of accuracy of the same information (Gentzkow, 2006).
This will help in ensuring that propaganda spread to the communities is not from the media that can be claimed as being owned by the government. This will help reduce the charges that can be held on the government`s station in case there is a difficulty, which has been caused by the delivered information to the society.
Propaganda spread by the media can lead to information being delivered to individuals that a certain community has to be eradicated. Thus, the society becomes tensed as individuals do not comprehend what is expected to be wrong and what is right. Therefore, the tension is stressed by the media and the tension develops among individuals and lead to chaos (Akresh & Walque, 2009).
Chaos among diverse individuals can lead to destruction of the important resources in the nation, which are used to help the nation in the process of development. Therefore, the government should ensure that there are rules governing the nation so that every resource in the nation can be maintained.
Rules by the government guiding the media on the flow of information are also necessary for effectiveness and efficiency. This is primarily based on the fact that, the media will have to follow certain rules when delivering the information that can be used to progress the nation and help in its growth (Gentzkow, 2006).
Political factions have been found to compete for power in cases of civil unrest and ethnic conflict. These factions are created by the uncertainty that exists in a nation relative to the policies of the government. Therefore, the punishment type that can be implemented in the nation based on ethnic violence is not clear to the communities.
The media should ensure that the information based on these policies is accurate before it is delivered to the society. This is because, most of the propaganda spread in the society is based on the policies that are uncertain and are being analyzed by the government officials. Therefore, the government officials should also ensure that there is clarity in the information relative to the policies of the land (Collier & Hoe-er, 1998).
Literature indicates that propaganda is information that contains messages that are not valid. This clearly indicates that this information is not what the individuals in the various communities expected from the government officials and leads to misunderstanding. Validity of information is crucial as it helps in propelling the communities to work together and get harmonized.
Information that is relayed to the media should be checked keenly by the government officials before it is delivered to the media houses. This will help in ensuring that the information delivered to the society as the final message is valid and can be explained if there are questions that can arise among the individuals (Akresh & Walque, 2009).
Propaganda has been found to be more harmful if the information delivered is based on the fact that the violence states against another community have been sponsored by the state. This indicates that individuals from various communities who will be involved in the violence will have a claim that the government sponsored the actions.
The media have been found to be used by the government officials in most cases to spread propaganda. Therefore, the nation believes that the government is right and cannot take charges on individuals who engage in the act of violence since the leaders have supported them. Thus, the violence cannot be easily stopped among the various communities (Anselin, 1988).
Propaganda spread in a nation can be through the use of papers and fliers, which contains information that is to be delivered to the individuals. This form of transmission spreads faster as the papers are easy to carry and be taken for a journey that is considerably long. This means that the message will be spread relatively fast.
However, the media have been found to be the fastest mode of communication that can be used for fast spread of propaganda. This is mainly because individuals in the various communities, in diverse locations in the nation, can get access to the information immediately they have been released and announced (Besley & Persson, 2011).
The services offered at editing and printing shops should be guided by principles that are laid down by the government officials. These principles should guide the individuals working, to deliver the right information to individuals in the society so that the number of cases where riots have occurred is decreased.
Regulating the information that is printed will reduce the cases where individuals receive messages that are considered as propaganda through leaflets and fliers. Therefore, individuals in the various communities will be able to wait for information that is directly aired out by the media through the various stations (Haavelmo, 1954).
The media should also be guided on how to deliver information, mode of delivering, and the right information that should also be relayed. This will help individuals in the nation understand the significance of delivering the right information to individuals in the various communities.
Propaganda has been analyzed and formed to influence the thinking of individuals. This is based on the fact that propaganda messages are aimed at ensuring that individuals from diverse communities are convinced of what they have been given. This makes the individuals change their way of thinking and try to believe that the information delivered to them is true and can be reliable (Haavelmo, 1954).
Analysis of the propaganda messages by individuals in the society causes them to understand the differences and the ability of one community to displace another community. Therefore, propaganda can be used to influence the thinking and actions portrayed by different individuals.
Propaganda messages are never aimed at bringing individuals from diverse communities as analyzed by researchers. This is based on the fact that, situations where there have been forms of propaganda in the society, the individuals have ended up forming diversity with other communities (Elhorst, 2010).
Diversity identified among individuals in a society has been found to decrease morale that exists among individuals, to work together in unity. This is based on the idea that, propaganda can be aimed at dividing individuals and creating a permanent difference among individuals.
Therefore, the government in any nation should ensure that there are measures governing the interaction that exists among individuals socially. This will help in ensuring that the laid down goals and objectives in the nation are attained successfully. Therefore, the measures should also govern the way individuals interact (Haavelmo, 1954).
Interaction between individuals from diverse communities is essential as it determines the level at which propaganda can influence the operations in the nation. This is because, if the individuals are united, it will be difficult for propaganda messages to create a difference between the communities.
Therefore, propaganda should not be encouraged in a nation. This will immensely help the leaders in the nation have a concrete explanation of the information that is delivered to the nation. Thus, the information spread by the media should be viable and aimed at developing the nation (Gentzkow, 2006).
The leaders in the government should also implement strategies that can be used to deal with the media houses, which are found delivering propaganda messages to individuals in the society. This method will help in ensuring that the number of cases where propaganda is spread through the media is reduced.
Therefore, the government media houses should also act as an example by ensuring that the information relayed from the media house is viable and reliable. The other media houses will also use as their basis and ensure that the information delivered is accurate and contains no propaganda messages (Haavelmo, 1954).
Conclusion
Spread of propaganda has been found to be effected by the media and social interaction among individuals, in the diverse communities, in the nation. The media deliver information that is not valid and has no basis as the source of information cannot be verified fully. This influences the reaction of individuals to the information received.
Researchers have analyzed diverse instances, and found that the spread of propaganda in a nation leads to individuals in diverse communities identifying the differences that exist among them and cause chaos in the nation. This has been found to affect the nation as some of individuals are killed in the process.
The effects of spreading propaganda in a nation have been found to influence the operations in the nation. Therefore, individuals working in the media department should be careful with the information that is relayed to the various individuals in diverse communities.
The various stations that are used for media transmission, especially those owned by the government should be guided on the information delivery method and analysis. This is based on the fact, information that is considered as propaganda can be harmful if it is from a transmission media that is owned and governed by the government body.
Validity of information in a nation has been found to be valuable since it defines the actions that will be undertaken by the various communities in the nation. If there is no explanation in the diversity of information, it can lead to curiosity of what is happening in the nation, and this can lead to questions among individuals from diverse communities.
The government should not promote actions that are violent among individuals. The government can only support violence in a nation if the leaders deliver information to the media that are not reliable. This can lead to the media insisting that the information relayed is reliable and should be used for the processes in the nation.
There should be ways that are implemented by the government that ensure that the information delivered by the media houses is valid. This can only be achieved if the media houses act as an example to the other media groups. This will help in reduction of spread of propaganda messages in the nation.
Recommendation
The media have been found to be an immense impact to the spread of propaganda in any nation. Therefore, there should be rules and regulations that have to be implemented to ensure that propaganda is not part of the information that is relayed to the public by the media. This will help in ensuring that the individuals in the nation are peaceful.
The government leaders should ensure that the media only delivers information that is proven to be true. This is based on the fact that diverse individuals will have a different perception of the information, and if it is not valid then there can be riots from the individuals, which will affect the whole nation.
To ensure that there is growth and development in a nation that is considerably stable, the issues related to propaganda should be solved, and the necessary measures be undertaken. This will ensure that harmony existing in the nation gives individuals a chance to work effectively and freely without being compromised.
Propaganda can lead to division among individuals who have lived in harmony for several years. This has been immensely made possible by the media and social interaction that exists among individuals of the community. Therefore, to reduce the rate at which propaganda is spread in a nation, the government should govern delivery reports and the language used by the media, to spread information.
Reduction of propaganda in a nation has been found to improve the relationship existing among the individuals of the community. This is based on the fact that, the society will be interacting with other individuals based on the real information and data that exist in the nation.
References
Akresh, R. & de Walque, D. (2009). Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, IZA Discussion Paper 3516, 2 (3), 1-2-5-4.
Andre, C. & Platteau, J.P. (1998). Land Relations Under Unbearable Stress: Rwanda Caught in the Malthusian Trap. Journal of Economic Behavior Organization, 34(1):1-47.
Anselin, L. (1988). Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Besley, T. & Persson, T. (2011). The Logic of Political Violence. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(3):1411-1445.
Collier, P. & Hoe­ er, A. (1998). On Economic Causes of Civil War. Oxford Economic Papers, 50(4):563-73.
Elhorst, J. P. (2010). Applied Spatial Econometrics: Raising the Bar. Spatial Economic Analysis, 5(1): 9-28.
Gentzkow, M. (2006). Television and Voter Turnout. Quarterly Journal of Economics,
121(3): 931-972.
Haavelmo, T. (1954). A Study in the Theory of Economic Evolution. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

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