Quantitative Critique

Quantitative Critique
What is the problem the study was conducted to research?
Chronic nursing stress is a medical condition that has increased its
prevalence, in the current century. This category of stress has
demonstrated significant negative impact on the employee turnover, as
well as quality of care. Nursing leaders play a significant role of
motivating and boosting the morale of nurses and diminishing burnout of
employees, as well. The strategies that have been developed to reduce
stress are desirable, especially the training, which diminishes stress
and improves patient satisfaction and job performance by nurses. The
unit morale in nursing is vitally dependent on the enthusiasm of the
leaders as the leaders act as the reference point to other workers who
emulate the leaders.
Why is the problem an important one for nursing to research?
It is apparent that the study of chronic stress problem among nurses and
nursing leaders is a significant indulgence among nurses as chronic
stress and anxiety tempers with the working capacity and efficiency of
workers. Any problem that affects the working efficiency of workers and
employees in any organization, especially health organizations, deserve
study, research and intensive intellectual attention (Cook & Guerrerio,
2004). Evidently, stress and anxiety reduces the ability of individuals
to perform their tasks. Stress impairs the coping capacity of the body
and mind of individuals and in the event that the condition is not
treated it escalates to destructive levels, which can result to eventual
death. In line with this point, stress begins with minor emotional
disturbances and worries about life events, which might not be
progressing as planned. Such events cause serious disturbances in the
life of people, and problem handling requires an intervention that
would prevent the issue from emerging. Therefore, healing touch training
requirements for nursing becomes the best intervention in this
profession to ensure that nurses do not suffer from chronic stress (Cook
& Guerrerio, 2004).
What is the purpose of the study?
This research examined the effect of healing touch on the welfare of
nurse leaders in a health centre that is academic (Cook & Guerrerio,
2004). The training was focused on determining and comprehending the
exact effects of training on both objective outcomes, as well as
self-report associated with welfare. With regard to the experience of
offering healing touch to students of medicine, the research team
predicted that nurses would encounter diminished stress and measures of
HRV would improve. For practical purposes, the study also focused on
recruiting nursing leaders’ feasibility in health centre, which are
academic. This training would be extended to include a follow up of the
level of training the leaders would engage into following the initial
What is the main research question?
The entire study was focused on the effect of training health touch on
nurses to handle chronic stress issues. This is the same line that was
followed by the key research question, which targeted the same line of
inquiry. Therefore, the key research question was: does improving the
welfare of nurses through training on healing touch improve outcomes and
self-report of nurses? This question guided the entire academic inquiry,
by ensuring that the vital ideas and reports were included and covered
in the study while materials and ideas that were beyond the scope of the
research were kept out of the study (King, 2005). These limitations of
the scope were significant to ensure that the study does not lose focus
to concentrate on irrelevant information.
What is the study hypothesis? If it is not stated, what would you say
the hypothesis is?
The study hypothesis of this research was tied around the purpose of the
study, and it was narrowing down to the impact of training health touch
on nurses on their work performance, as well as improving the welfare of
the same. Further, the hypothesis had broad divinity net to include the
effect of training health on nurse leaders to ensure that they are
equipped to handle stress issues, which affect them, as well as other
nurses (Cook & Guerrerio, 2004). The implication of this point was
improving the welfare of nurses to ensure that their morale is boosted
to foster to work with dedication and effectively.
Identify and describe the major study variables. Identify the study
variables by examining the purpose, the objectives, questions, or
hypotheses, and the results section of the research article.
The key study variables that were tackled by the study include learning
healing touch, objective outcome and self-report. The named key variable
brought effect on negative outcomes in individuals as depression,
anxiety stress among other outcomes, as well as positive outcomes as
relaxation, improved job satisfaction and satisfying sleep, which were
based on visual qualities of the participants (Biswas et al, 2000).
Further, the heart rate was also included as a variable that would
indicate the level of wellbeing of nurses due to its association with
the central nervous system. Learning healing touch is the training that
was provided to the entire sample of participants. This training
involved lessons of the best ways to handle individual stress and
anxiety through controlled breathing exercises, which improve body
functioning and mental activities. The breathing lessons were
characterized by practices of calming the nerves, as well as mind to
ensure that nurses and students can focus on their work and stop
worrying about things, which are outside the their jobs. The objective
outcomes and self reported feelings were the results that were attained
as a result of the intervention of the healing touch training (Cook &
Guerrerio, 2004). The heart rate was another variable that was
considered as a key variable in the study. For instance, low heart rate
and heart beats per interval indicate positive well-being of an
individual, which is healthy and satisfying. On the contrary, high heart
rate indicates disturbed mind or a person who is experiencing anxiety,
which in turn increases perspiration and metabolic activities.
Define the meaning of the term “independent variable.”
A variable describes an event, object feeling, period or idea that an
individual attempts to measure. These variables are devised in an
intellectual inquiry with the objective of the inquiry being to
determine the effect of these variables on a phenomenon. Variables are
either categorized as dependent and independent (Biswas et al, 2000). As
the name suggests, an independent variable does not depend on anything
but remain unchanged by the course of events. This variable does not
lean or seek support from other factors, but stands alone. The rest of
the measurable variable, in a study, do not alter the independent
variable and the converse happen in any research. An example of an
independent variable in a research of factors that affect human life
might be age. In this case, the age of an individual is not affected by
other factors of human life, but the variable affects lots of factors of
human beings (King, 2005). Therefore, the relationship that exists
between variables in a study is that the independent variable causes
significant changes on the dependent variables. The article clearly
demonstrates the independent variable, which was established in the
Identify the independent variables in this study and provided a
definition of the variable.
The independent variable in the research was healing touch training.
How is the independent variable carried out in this study?
The study established that healing touch training brought significant
effects to other variables as objective outcomes, as well as self-report
results of the intervention as reduced stress and increased relaxation
and job satisfaction. The independent variable was carried out through
training sessions to a group of research participants who were nurses,
especially nurses who were leaders in the hospital in one way or the
other (King, 2005). These training classes were conducted on a part time
basis, and the objective was to train the participants vital skills in
healing touch therapy, which are necessary in dealing with stress, as
well as reducing burnout cases (Tang et al, 2010).
Define the meaning of the term “dependent variable.”
Dependent variable is described as a position or an event or an idea,
which depend on other factors for it to change. Therefore, a dependent
variable is the recipient of the effects of the independent variable
(Cook & Guerrerio, 2004). Therefore, dependent variables follow the
notion of the name dependent and they change significantly in response
to changes in other factors. The dependent variable are easily measured
and determined through the set parameters in a study and the same
provide precise results, in a field of study (Tang et al, 2010).
Identify the dependent variables in this study and provide a definition
of the variable.
It is imperative to point out that the dependent variables in this study
were self-report and objective outcomes.
How is the dependent variable measured in this study?
The dependent variables in this study were measured through observation
and analysis of the outcomes, which were reported by the nurses that who
were participating in the study. Therefore, the measurement of dependent
variables was obtained from the self-reported well-being of
participants, which included reduced stress and anxiety, increased job
satisfaction, relaxation and improved sleep quality.
Note: The following 4 questions are determined in the literature review
… it does not refer to the methodology.
Is the framework explicitly expressed or must the reviewer extract the
framework from implicit statements in the literature review? JUSTIFY
your response!
The framework of this study was not explicitly stated in the literature
review, and the literature review was not included in the article, which
was provided in the study. However, the reader is compelled to extract a
rough idea of the framework from the discussions and descriptions in the
rest of the article. However, the organization of the study, sample
collection, training progress, parameters of determining the causes and
effects of the study shows that the research was a scientific inquiry,
which exploited scientific methods of study and analysis of results.
Therefore, the entire research retained the objective and empirical
scientific methods which maintained the objectivity and scientific based
scientific evidence in the study.
Is the framework based on scientific, substantive, or tentative theory?
Further, the framework that was exploited in the study incorporated
tentative theories of learning, anxiety and stress reduction and central
nervous system functioning and activities. These tentative inclinations
towards scientific theories prove the relationship of the dependent and
the independent variables in the study. For instance, the framework
provided provide a precise description of the healing touch therapy and
training, which was the key point of focus of the entire study.
Does the framework identify, define, and describe relationships among
the concepts of interest? Provide examples and rationale for your
The frame provided the audience with ample knowledge and introduction on
the anticipated effects of the introduction of training healing touch to
nursing students as well as nursing leaders with a clear objective of
the key changes to be measured in the results of the study.
How is the framework related to the body of knowledge in nursing?
The nursing body of knowledge has received massive input and information
from numerous studies, which have been conducted, in the past. The
framework that was utilized in this research was unquestionably relevant
to nursing as opens up the significance of investing in protecting the
interests and wellbeing to ensure that they give their best to patients
as they enjoy doing their work, without the possibility of burnout. In
the event that nurses are given the best inputs, the output of their
work will increase the quality of healthcare at all levels including the
institutional level, nurse and patient levels. Such levels of
improvement in nursing practice and leadership intervention implies an
elevated quality of care for the entire human family.
Are the articles relevant with previous studies and theories described?
The articles that were utilized in the study were relevant to study, as
well as the theories that were employed in the study. The knowledge that
was obtained from previous studies was documented in the articles that
were cited in the article thus combining the knowledge from previous
studies and linking it with the current studies. Therefore, the articles
provided the research team with informed decisions, which were crucial
in avoiding cases of duplicating results, or repeating previous studies
in the same area of healing touch training and objective outcomes, as
well as improved self-report.
Are the references current? Identify the number of sources within past
10 years and the number of sources within past five years.
Further, most of the sources that were exploited for the study and
analysis and interpretation of the findings were current articles. This
situation improves the chances of reliability of the results of research
based on the evidence that the study corresponds to the current
circumstances. Out of the 44 articles that were utilized in the study,
11 articles were five years young while some were written more recently
than five years ago. Further, twenty eight articles out of the total 48
eight articles that were utilized for the research were less than ten
years old. This signifies that most of the articles were recent indeed.
However, the study did not discard old knowledge, but combined the old
and new knowledge to develop objective points of view, which can be
generalized in the entire population, despite the small sample that was
used for the study.
Describe the current knowledge about the research problem.
Healing touch is an area that has received ample studies, which have
proved that the intervention improves the health status of nurses,
nursing leaders and nursing students. However, this knowledge had not
been tested on nurses in practice, and the lack testing indicated a gap
in knowledge (Im & kim, 2009). Further, there are stocks of knowledge
that are consistent with healing touch training and intervention, which
indicate that the levels of stress reduce in students, nurses and
leaders following the onset of healing touch training. Biofield training
was the closest source of reference for healing touch training, and the
results that were obtained from the study indicated consistency with the
Specify the gap in the literature that justifies the need for the
Despite the success of the research study and the healing touch training
to nursing leaders as a method of diminishing stress, there are gaps in
information, research and study, which require improved intellectual
inquiries to cover. Biofiled therapy trainings remain significant and
vital even in massive centers of academic health. The evidence of this
relevance is reflected reduced stress results and outcomes, which are
demonstrated, by elevated physiologic outcomes. These outcomes suggest
that further studies are required to compare biofield training
effectiveness with other methods of dealing with stress reduction.
Further, such studies will be vital in evaluating broad outcomes and
results, which are associated with stress, job satisfaction, as well as
burnout, and the effect on patients and colleagues.
NAME the specific quantitative methodology of the study.
The quantitative methodology of the study is that utilized in the study
was measurement of abstract attributes as stress, job satisfaction and
heart rate among others.
Provide a clear description/definition of this methodology (in your own
words) use an article or your text to support the definition and
provide a citation.
Measurement refers to the aspect or activity of determining the extent
and degree or intensity of a phenomenon. These measurements can include
the determination of the alterations, which happen as a result of
introduction or removal in a variable (Vogt, 2006).
Why was the choice of this methodology appropriate for this study?
JUSTIFY your response.
Measurement is the most suitable method of determining changes in
abstract aspects of life, as well as changes in physiological conditions
of a human body. It is not difficult to relate such changes to the
measure of interest in a study.
Identify inclusion and exclusion sample criteria.
The criteria for inclusion and exclusion of the sample were based on the
career and position of the participants, basically, the entire
individuals who were included in the sample were required to be a nurse
or nursing leaders in any unit, in the hospital or nursing students. All
the people who were not eligible for description of a job as a nurse or
a position as the nursing student or leader were excluded from the
sample, which was considered for the study. Further, the nurses were
registered for practice, and they operated under full time employment
Indicate the method used to obtain the sample. Provide a definition of
the method and discuss why it was an appropriate choice for this study
All the participants in the sample were obtained through selective
picking as exceptional qualities were required for the entire
population in the study group. The participants gave the research team
their informed consent, which was based, on knowledge, as well as the
desire to participate in the study (Im & kim, 2009).
State the sample size. Indicate if a power analysis was conducted to
determine the sample size.
The sample size was 25 female nurses.
Identify the SPECIFIC characteristics (demographics) of the sample.
The youngest participant in this study was aged 36 years while the
oldest participant was aged 58 years. All the participants were women
nurses who had leadership responsibilities in the hospital, regardless
of whether the position was senior or subordinate. It is imperative to
note that these demographic descriptions of the sample were also
employed in the inclusion and exclusion of the study participants.
Identify the sample mortality (or attrition) number and percentage.
The sample mortality number was 2 and the percentage of the same was
Indicate the type of consent obtained and institutional review board
The participants gave the research team their informed consent, which
was based, on knowledge, as well as the desire to participate in the
study (Im & kim, 2009). The authorization for the progress of the revise
was acquired from the pertinent panel, without any problems. Therefore,
the research procedure adhered to the required standards, which are
stipulated for such activities and procedures.
Identify the study setting and indicate if it is appropriate for the
study purpose. JUSTIFY your response!
The study setting was the hospital environment, and it was totally
appropriate following the fact that nurses work in the hospital
environment. Therefore, nurses are more likely to act in their normal
way while in the hospital environment than other places.
Define extraneous variables
Extraneous variables are variables that are not desired, but bring
effects to the independent variables in a study. There were several
extraneous variables in the study, which affected the outcomes as a
result of tempering with the independent variable.
What are the extraneous variables in this study? In what way(s) were
appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous
variables? Describe fully. If not addressed, explain how you know this
and identify the extraneous variables you would note.
The research team had not accounted for Hawthorne effect, which
introduces prodigious errors in the outcomes of research studies.
Further, there are other extraneous variables absenteeism of nurses,
which disrupt attendance of training and the outcomes of healing touch,
as well.
Identify the instruments used in the research
FOR EACH INSTRUMENT: Instrument #1 Name of Instrument: Discuss how the
instrument was developed or purpose of use. Cite the source for the
background information about the instrument.
The key research instrument that was employed in the study was
experimental research. In experimental research, the researcher makes
vivid attempts to regulate the research variables, as well as predict
the outcomes of the study.
Identify the type of measurement strategy (e.g., Likert scale, visual
analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or
The measurement strategies for this study were visual analogues
interview and physiological measure (Vogt, 2006) Visual analogues were
utilized in determining the changes in stress reduction and increased
job satisfaction among others. The physiological measure was exploited
to determine the changes in heart rare depending on the level of stress
(Biswas et al, 2000). Finally, interview were utilized to determine the
changes in the lives of nurses following the healing touch training, as
well as the positive outcomes that were obtained from the same.
Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio)
achieved by the measurement strategy. Provide a definition of the level
of measurement(s) you identified and justify WHY you believe the
instruments represent this level of measurement.
The level of measurement was ordinal. This level of measurement
describes the ranking of values with limits as from 0-9 or 1-20. The
lowest value represent the least effect while the highest value
represent the most effect.
Report the reliability of the instrument from previous studies and the
current study.
This instrument was entirely valid and reliable for this study due to
the significant level of accuracy that can be achieved from the
instrument (Newman & Benz, 2006).
Report the validity of the instrument from previous studies and the
current study.
This instrument remains valid as a result of successful usage in the
past in similar studies and the same value of validity is extended to
the current study.
Detail how the data were collected.
Research data were collected through reports that were compiled by
nurses who completed the training and who were available for follow up
interview on the progress. This procedure was appropriate for the study
as the nurses were given a chance to provide objective reports of their
feelings and the experienced outcomes, without biases or manipulation.
The participants were not coerced to participate in the research or
compile the report, but the nurses did everything at their pace.
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this
This procedure was appropriate for the study as the nurses were given a
chance to provide objective reports of their feelings and the
experienced outcomes, without biases or manipulation. The participants
were not coerced to participate in the research or compile the report,
but the nurses did everything at their pace.
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect the rights of the
The dignity of the subjects was upheld through training and information
to ensure that the subjects comprehended the procedures and goals of the
study. Further, the attainment of informed consent was a priority and
the privacy of the subjects was not violated at any time.
Identify the statistical procedures used in the study: Statistical
Procedure #1 (Name and definition):
Tabulation is the statistical procedure that was utilized in the study.
Tabulation describes the representation of data (statistical) in tables,
which are designed according to the data that are to be represented (Im
& kim, 2009).
How was it used in the study?
Tables were used to present data and information that was obtained from
the study concerning the objective outcomes and self-reports. The date
that was fed into the tables was developed from Wilcoxon Independent
Samples Test, which deals with ranked or ordinal data (Thomas, 2003).
Statistical Procedure #2 (Name and definition):
Standard deviation. Standard deviation determines the mean score or
value of a phenomenon by obtaining the sum averages with and the
deviation value
How was it used in the study?
This procedure was used to determine the value of heart rate variability
in the subjects after the healing touch training as well as before the
Statistical Procedure #3 (Name and definition):
Report describes the process of documenting and representing descriptive
information of a study
How was it used in the study?
The participant nurses compiled a report and handed it in to the
research team with accounts of the changes that healing touch training
brought to their lives.
Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the
Statistical Procedure Statistical Findings Significance (provide a
narrative description of the significance as well as the actual
statistical values
Report two nurses reported improved coping capacity Positive feedbacks
from subjects on positively influenced job life and social life, as
Standard 113_9.7mm Hg/71_6.8mm Hg The significance of this finding is
the average blood pressure following the training and before the
training. It is imperative to note that blood pressure has a direct
impact on the heart rate variability.
Ranking 5.8 to 6.8, p¼0.005) This value represents significant
improvement in job satisfaction by the subject
What are the specific results of the study? Provide DEPTH and write IN
26 nurses responded to the invitation to participate in the study, and
the class reached the required quorum. A couple of nursing did not
manage to attend the training session and twenty nurses went through the
entire outcome and baseline measures (Thomas, 2003). A couple of nurses
skipped the entire classes as they had problems with clashing
schedules, which were not accounted for or anticipated. The
non-completer reported hasty feeling, which were rushing their time for
activities (VAS score 8.4 versus 6.2, p¼0.03) and the same group had
problems with sleep (VAS score 3.6 versus 5.1,
P=¼ 0.03). These results represented the scores that were obtained from
visual analogue. It is significant to point out that nurses who
completed the entire training on healing touch reported improved
mechanisms of dealing with stress, as well as awful life events (Newman
& Benz, 2006). For instance, two of the nurse encountered bereavement
and child hospitalization respectively, and their coping efficiency was
remarkable and far beyond the anticipated performance on such
emotionally draining life events (Thomas, 2003).
What are two major strengths of the scientific merit of this study?
(This does not refer to findings of the study)
The key strength of the study was that the study relied heavily on facts
theoretical frameworks, which can be proved through scientific methods.
What are two major limitations of the scientific merit of this study?
The scientific limitation of the study was evidenced in the size of the
sample, which was small and most likely not representative of the entire
population (Biswas et al, 2000).
How did the researcher generalize the findings?
The outcomes of the study are likely to be duplicated in a sample that
is bigger than the sample that was utilized in the study. the researcher
assumed that the findings represented the effects of healing touch
training to the entire nursing fraternity, as well as the entire
population of the massive human family
What did the researchers say the relevance of the data was? Describe the
researchers’ interpretation of the findings.
The data proved that healing touch training should be incorporated in
the nursing curriculum to ensure that all nursing students are equipped
with the vital knowledge of dealing with chronic stress. This
information will improve service delivery and the overall health of
nurses and patients.
Where in nursing can the results of the data be applied?
The research data can be exploited in dealing with psychological
disorders and emotional problems in the nursing practice. Further, the
procedures that were followed in the research were clear, and the same
can be replicated in a different study, without problems.
What suggestions for further study were identified?
There is need for further research the effectiveness of biofield
training for stress reduction against other mechanisms and strategies of
dealing with stress. Further, the outcomes of these interventions should
be evaluated through a triangulation of broad outcomes for stress
reduction, burnout and job satisfaction.
Is the description of the study sufficiently clear for replication?
Explain and Justify your response
Yes. The description of the study adhered to standard scientific
procedures, which can be replicated in every, by following the same
Reflect upon your newly developed understanding of quantitative
research. What has this experience critiquing a quantitative research
study meant to you and how will this make a difference in your overall
practice of nursing? Please provide depth and be sure you respond to the
question. This is a subjective response and must be at least 2 full
paragraphs. Please respond in reference to understanding quantitative
methodology and not the specific focus of the research study.
Quantitative methods are significant in the development of research
skills as they provide precise round off for research and scientific
studies. Quantitative research incorporates other disciplines in the
research process, which are vital in providing avenues for triangulation
of methods of research and data analysis. Unlike other researches,
quantitative research focuses on objective inquiry and analysis of
results, without intentional errors
Nursing practice require quantitative skills to ensure that all data and
information that concern a patient and patient medication histories are
analyzed and presented accurately. Numbers are precise, and they
meanings are comprehended easily. Further, this research method provides
vital insights into the nursing profession, which involves continuous
studies and research to discover the best practice for both patients and
What has the experience of reading and critiquing a quantitative study
meant to you?
The experience was exceptional and beneficial to my existing knowledge
stock and the same will be utilized for future advancements in my
How will understanding and using quantitative research findings make a
difference in your practice of nursing?
The understanding of quantitative research will improve my approach to
statistical data, which is relevant to patients, nurses and the entire
nursing practice. Further, this understanding will help me decipher the
meanings of figures and values represented in graphs and charts, without
wasting time.
Biswas, A.K., Scott, W.A., Sommerauer, J.F., & Luckett, P.M., (2000).
Heart rate variability after acute traumatic brain injury in children.
Crit Care Med.
Cook, C.A, Guerrerio, J.F, Slater, V.E., (2004). Healing touch and
quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: A
randomized controlled trial. Altern Ther Health Med.
Im, H, & Kim E. (2009). Effect of Yakson and Gentle Human Touch versus
usual care on urine stress hormones and behaviors in preterm infants: A
quasi-experimental study. Int J Nurs Stud.
King R.P., (2005). The integration of healing touch with conventional
care at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine. Explore (NY).
Newman, I., & Benz, C. R. (2006). Qualitative-quantitative research
methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, Ill.
[u.a.: Southern Illinois Univ. Press.
Tang, R., Tegeler, C. Larrimore, D. Cowgill, S., & Kemper K.J. (2010).
Improving the Well Being of Nursing Leaders Through Healing Touch
Thomas, R. M. (2003). Blending qualitative & quantitative research
methods in theses and dissertations. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.
Wardell, D.W., Rintala, D.H., Duan, Z., & Tan, G., (2006). A pilot study
of healing touch and progressive relaxation for chronic neuropathic pain
in persons with spinal cord injury. J. Holist Nurs.
Vogt, W. P. (2006). Quantitative research methods for professionals.
Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.