Type Two Diabetes helping out Andrew

Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which arises out of feeding habits. There are two common types of diabetes which are type 1 and type two. Our interest is on Type 2 diabetes which is often called diabetes mellitus in the medical circles. This kind of diabetes is not fatal if measures to control it are taken at an early stage. According to a 2007 fact sheet from National Diabetes, shocking statistics reveal that 24 million people suffer from diabetes. Additionally, the disease ranks at seventh among other killer diseases (Thomas, 2013). The theme of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of exergames and other passive exercises to induce behavioral change in an individual. The term exergame is derived from the words exercise and games. This means that in playing these games some energy is utilized. Physicians have often linked diabetes to obesity a condition that is caused by excess accumulation of fats in the body. Experts in the psychological field have carried out numerous researches to determine the effect of exergames on an individual. Several types of theories have been put forward to elaborate how the exergames work. These theories elaborate on interaction of the various personalities in the context of the exergames, and how a person is changed from this interaction.
The evidence on the effectiveness of exergames on behavioral change has been theorized by Higgins (Jin, 2009). Higgins (1997) put forth two theories which were regulatory focus theory and self discrepancy theory (Jin, 2012). Our interest is in the latter. Self discrepancy theory divides the concept of self into three: the actual self, ideal self and ought self. Firstly, actual self refers to the real traits a person has. Secondly, Ideal self are the personal traits a person is thought to possess. Lastly, ought self is about those traits that a person should possess. The first step in our approach is to explain to Andrew about the various types of self. We can also let him play the game beforehand so as to evaluate him. The exergame in question should be simple so as to entice Andrew to play through the various levels this will satisfy the competence need (Przybylski, Ryan & Rigby, 2010). This will create an interest in the game the latter levels should be difficult for the player to complete. At this point the subject of self should be delved into.
Experimental evidence elaborates that self discrepancy theory best explains the differences between various selves. Higgins (1997) observed that in an experiment the test subjects were encouraged to create their own avatars and rightly so those that reflected their actual self. At this point hopes and aspirations were put to test. Where these avatars failed, the gamers were frustrated and disappointed. This is best explained by the theory of planned behavior. According to Povey & Conner (2000), behavior arises out of a series of intentions. This strategy can also be applied on Andrew he can be advised to create his own avatar which is then pitted against a tailored avatar. The idea is to make Andrew lose as much as possible in these games then we can explain to him perhaps why he keeps losing. It is possible to manipulate a kid`s brain: we can do this by explaining to Andrew why he keeps losing in the exergame. Firstly we can bring the issue of weight: by explaining to him that the tailored avatars keep winning because they have normal weight unlike him. Caution should be taken while communicating this to Andrew. To avoid making him feel like a victim, the counselor should also create an avatar that projects their actual image. The game should be designed in such a way that the avatar of the therapist keeps winning. Here we can come up with various outdoor activities that could help Andrew shed off some weight. These activities should be tied to the tailored avatars. At this point, a list of foods that Andrew should not eat and those that he could eat is also written down. All this is in order to create a mind setting that makes Andrew play the exergames as much as possible at the same time keeping fit. This will induce a behavioral change on Andrew by slowly making it a habit. Dietary changes will also be visible because he has been informed that food has a part to play in winning the games. This type of regulation has been called non-self regulatory style, but we also see self-regulatory style playing a part too because Andrew can choose to follow the measure stipulated or simply choose to abandon them (Pelletier et al, 2004). According to the self regulatory style, people do try to control what they eat, but they never succeed. This often leads to jeopardized health. It is sensible to assume that people do want to change. However, we cannot determine the sustainability of the change in dietary behavior for a long time. The desired dieting should result from self directed behavior change which is acquired through persistence. A self directed regulatory dieting is difficult to maintain and paying attention to what we ingest is an example of the regulatory measure (Pelletier et al, 2004). Self determination theory has been put forward to clear the mist around self regulatory behavior. This theory ties the style of regulation to the nature of motivation. Motivation takes three shapes extrinsic, intrinsic and amotivation. Internal motivation stems from a personal level to change eating behavior while external is more reward oriented. We cannot determine whether losing the weight is Andrew`s personal intention or what he believes he should do. However, we can apply the theory of self-Determination through external motivation to induce the behavioral change. According to Rise et al (2010), there is no certain link between intention and behavior change. However, the theory of planned behavior suggests that conduct is influenced by a series of intentions, as well as, the foreseeable degree of control over such a conduct (Povey & mark Conner 2000). Two aspects however have stood out in the theory of behavior change. These are self efficacy and perceived behavior control. Self efficacy is a driver for the intention to behave in a given way while PBC influences behavior (Terry and O`Leary 1995).
In order to maintain Andrew`s interest on the games, awards should be introduced for every time he wins this is external motivation. While this may have the effect of keeping him in the exercise, it could also help him lose much weight. After a lengthy period Andrew`s diet behaviors will have changed, and perhaps he will be so much into outdoor activity the aim is to make exercise a part of his self identity.
The following is a list of foods Andrew should eat
Fruits, vegetables, legumes and lean meat on the other hand Andrew should keep off such foods as meat, Chips, and other fatty foods.
References
Thomas, Julia (2013). Is Type 2 Diabetes Fatal? Retrieved on May 12[th] 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5787664_type-diabetes-fatal_.html
Jin, S. A. (2009). Avatars mirroring the actual self versus projecting the ideal self: the
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JIN, Annie (2012). Self-Discrepancy and Regulatory Fit in Avatar -Based Exergames1. Psychological Reports: Mental & Physical Health: department of Communication. BN: Boston College.
Hong, J., & Lee, A. Y. (2008) Be fit and be strong: mastering self-regulation through
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JIN, Annie (2012). Self-Discrepancy and Regulatory Fit in Avatar -Based Exergames1. Psychological Reports: Mental & Physical Health: department of Communication. BN: Boston College.
Przybylski, Ryan & Rigby (2010). A Motivational Model of Video Game Engagement. American Psychological Association. Review of General Psychology (C) 2010 American Psychological Association Vol. 14, No. 2, 154 – 166
Povey, R & Conner, M (2000). Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to two dietary behaviours: Roles of perceived control and self-efficacy. British Journal of Health Psychology 5, 121 – 139. Great Britain
Pelletier et al (2004). Why Do You RegulateWhat You Eat? RelationshipsBetween Forms of Regulation, Eating Behaviors, Sustained Dietary Behavior Change, and Psychological Adjustment1. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 28, No. 3. Springer science + Business Media
Rise et al (2010). The Role of Self-identity in the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 40, 5, pp. 1085 – 1105. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Terry, D. J., & O`Leary, J. E. (1995). The Theory of Planned Behaviour: The effects of perceived behavioural control and self-ef.cacy. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 199 – 220.
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